Big Earth Data in Support of the Sustainable Development Goals (2020): China, produced by the Big Earth Data Science Engineering Program (CASEarth), presents 42 case studies on the development of indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and sustainability assessments in six SDGs, including: SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), SDG 13 (Climate Action), SDG 14 (Life below Water), and SDG 15 (Life on Land). These cases provide in-depth research and monitoring results of relevant SDG targets at national and local scales by means of data products, methods, and decision support, including 41 data products, 21 methodologies, and 30 results that are of value to policy-making. The cases demonstrate China's exploration and practice of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development based on science, technology, and innovation. They fully reveal the great value and broad prospect of Big Earth Data technology in monitoring and evaluating SDGs. Each case pioneers a new way to use advanced technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development under the framework of the United Nations Technology Facilitation Mechanism. The report also provides a reference for other countries to strengthen their monitoring and evaluation of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.