Big Earth Data in support of the Sustainable Development Goals (2020): The Belt and Road presents 44 case studies of the Big Earth Data Science Engineering Program (CASEarth) on the development of indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and sustainability assessments in six SDGs, including: SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), SDG 13 (Climate Action), SDG 14 (Life below Water), and SDG 15 (Life on Land). These cases provide in-depth research and monitoring results of relevant SDG targets at different scales on the Belt and Road region by means of data products, methods, and decision support, including 43 data products, 25 methodologies, and 30 results that are of value to policy-making. These cases demonstrate the utilization of new emerging technology for exploration and practice of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development based on science and technology for monitoring and evaluating SDGs. The cases pioneer new ways to use advanced technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development under the framework of the United Nations Technology Facilitation Mechanism. The report provides a reference for other countries to strengthen their monitoring and evaluation of implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.