The implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is faced with an urgent need for data and methods. As an efficient research technique and means of data acquisition, Earth observation is capable of dynamically and objectively monitoring environmental parameters related to land, ocean, atmosphere, and human activities at the macro level. Therefore, it can provide periodic information for SDGs.
Scientific Satellite for SDGs 1 (SDGSAT-1) is the first of its kind dedicated to serving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and it is also the first Earth science satellite of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
To meet the requirements of monitoring, evaluating, and researching indicators of SDGs, SDGSAT-1 aims to depict traces of anthropic activities using synergetic observations from its three payloads, i.e., the Thermal Infrared Spectrometer and the Glimmer and Multispectral Imagers. The sensors work in day and night observing modes, serving the realization of global SDGs and providing support for the study of the SDG indicators related to human-nature interaction. 
Scientific Objectives
The satellite aims to detect parameters representing the interaction between human activities and the Earth environment. The imagery it captures will be converted into information that can be applied to the SDGs and studies on the correlation and coupling of human activities and the natural environment. SDGSAT-1 takes full advantage of its multiple payloads to collaboratively explore Earth’s surface at a macroscopic scale. The scientific objective is to study the environmental changes and evolution mainly caused by human activities, such as urbanization (SDG 11), human settlement patterns (SDG 2 and SDG 6), energy consumption (SDG 13), and coastal ecology (SDG 14 and SDG 15), as well as exploring new methods and approaches for detecting the surface environment under low-light conditions such as night light or moonlight. 
Technical Specifications 
SDGSAT-1 flies in a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 505 km and inclination angle of 97.5°, resulting in a spatial resolution of 30 m for the Thermal Infrared Spectrometer and 10 m for the Glimmer and Multispectral Imagers, which allows SDGSAT-1 to cover the globe in eleven days. By working in "Thermal Infrared+Multispectral", " Thermal Infrared+Glimmer", and single-payload observing modes, SDGSAT-1 can collect multiple types of datasets day and night.
To ensure data quality, SDGSAT-1 has various field and onboard calibration working modes, i.e., moon calibration, blackbody calibration, LED lamp calibration, and side slither calibration, which guarantee accurate quantitative detection.
Technical specifications of SDGSAT-1






Sun-synchronous orbit


505 km



Thermal Infrared Spectrometer

Swath Width

300 km


8~10.5 μm

10.3~11.3 μm

11.5~12.5 μm

Spatial Resolution

30 m  

Glimmer/Multispectral Imager

Swath Width

300 km

Bands of Glimmer Imager

P: 450900 nm

B: 430520 nm

G: 520615 nm

R: 615690 nm

Spatial Resolution of Glimmer Imager

P:10 m, RGB: 40 m

Bands of Multispectral Imager

B1: 380 nm420 nm

B2: 420 nm460 nm

B3: 460 nm520 nm

B4: 520 nm600 nm

B5: 630 nm690 nm

B6: 765 nm805 nm

B7: 805 nm900 nm

Spatial Resolution of Multispectral Imager

10 m

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development entered its "Decade of Action" in 2020. However, its implementation still faces several constraints such as lack of data, insufficient research on indicator systems, and uneven progress in its implementation. Among these, the need for data and methods is the most important and urgent.
Scientific and technological innovation is an important means to support the realization of SDGs, and Earth observation can make an important contribution to the implementation of SDGs. CBAS is looking forward to collaborating with related stakeholders to fully use the advantages of Earth observing systems to contribute to the realization of the SDGs.